Datation de sites acheuléens et moustériens du Midi méditerranéen par la méthode de Résonance de Spin Electronique
For forty years the development of physical sciences has led to prehistory to broaden its scope of investigation. Indeed, nuclear physics has provided absolute dating methods that were added to more traditional methods such as human paleontology, typology or sedimentology. <br /><br />In this work, we chose to use the method of electron spin resonance dating for Acheulean and Mousterian south Mediterranean sites for several reasons.<br /><br />First reason : it is a new method. <br /><br />Second reason : it covers a period which extends almost throughout the Quaternary and we are committed to ensure that the ESR method could provide benchmarks for time periods that other absolute dating methods do not or rarely date. <br /><br />Indeed, the method of C14 has established a detailed chronology for the Upper Paleolithic sites. But given the relatively short period of this element, T = 5730 years, it is difficult to establish ages beyond 35-40 000 years<br /><br />The dating methods using imbalances uranium families (Th-230/U-234, Pa-231/U-235), can be dated to 300 000 and 150 000 years respectively.<br /><br />Some older sites in East Africa have been dated by the method K / Al due to volcanic ash they contain. It is also possible to use the method of fission track for ancient sites. Unfortunately, the scarcity of volcanic ash and minerals formed at high temperature as zircon is an obstacle to the use of these methods.<br /><br />So, for dating sites older than 300 000 years, it was necessary to develop new methods. This is the case of the TL and ESR, which are based on the same principle as we shall see.<br />The TL is sufficiently accurate for dating pottery, volcanic rocks or burned flint. <br />As for the ESR method, it applies to several minerals such as quartz, aragonite, but essentially the result of calcite stalagmite floors, numerous in South-Mediterranean sites.<br /><br />This work consists of 2 parts.<br /><br />The first is devoted to the method ESR /<br /><br />The second concerns the application of the method to the dating of prehistoric sites.
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